While online gambling is crossing borders by nature, protective measures for consumers are fragmented across the Member States of the EU. As there are no EU measures existing alongside the various national measures, not all consumers and citizens may be sufficiently protected aross the European Union. An objective of the European Commission has therefore been to achieve a common set of measures that would ensure the general protection of consumers and to deter the emergence of problem gambling. The study was launched in light of the lack of evidence on the effectiveness or adequacy of existing measures that are intended to protect online consumers. The measures that we tested in this study by means of two behavioural experiments (one laboratory and one online experiment) comprised both measures that already existed in some Member States and/or were adopted by some of the online gambling operators and new measures that could be introduced in the future. Countries subject to the online experiment comprised Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK.
The study forms part of earlier research projects conducted by Open Evidence staff.